Information, signs, knowledge and intelligence
Keywords:nature of information, information environment, information impact, semantics of information, cybernetic system, controlled behavio, cybernetic system security, nature of signs, knowledge, intelligence of a cybernetic system
Understanding the special role of information in scientific knowledge formation is simultaneously accompanied by a high level of uncertainty regarding the nature of both information and knowledge. There are many approaches to information that can be constructively applied in some special areas of activity but remain completely useless in others. Against the background of such “informational diversity”, many researchers more often had the idea of the need for a universal explanation of the information phenomenon. The need to solve this problem is intuitively substantiated by the fact that the formation of information and its application create the foundation for many processes of self-organization and control in systems of various nature: chemical, biological, social, technical, and others. From the same point of view, the concept of information is often referred to as the primary one when explaining other also little understood phenomena: signs, semantics, knowledge, psyche, intelligence, mind, consciousness, self-awareness, mathematics, probability, and others. The universal concept of information and concepts derived from it can become a set of tools for formalized analysis from common conceptual positions of information processes in various scientific fields. The article presents the results of research, within the framework of which a universal information concept was obtained using a set of basic statements (axiomatic approach) and means of terminological, graphic, mathematical formalization (means of overcoming uncertainties). The information phenomenon is presented as a special result of the interaction of physical objects: the property of an object acquired during interaction contains the characteristics of another object. This approach to explaining the nature of information (attributive-transfer nature of information, ATNI), made it possible to determine the components of the process of its formation: informational impact, information carrier, essence, and semantics of information. With their help, derived concepts are defined: information environment and its characteristics; cybernetic system, the formalized model of its controlled behavior and security criteria; signs and their relationship with information; knowledge and intelligence of the cybernetic system. The applicability of the proposed approach to the analysis of processes in information environments of various natures: protein, neural, computer, has been tested.
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