Analysis of the human factor influence on the cyber-physical system
Keywords:Fourth Industrial Revolution, cyber-physical system, human-machine system, human factor, bias, risks, cybersecurity
The issue of rapid application of the Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies for different aspects of human life, which summarizes various technical means and information technologies through the implementation of cyber-physical systems, cyber-physical production systems, and the Internet of Things in the production of goods and services. The widespread use of cyber-physical systems as a new mechanism and a way to achieve a new, higher standard of living is analyzed. Cyber-physical systems collect, store, and analyze data from sensors. This is necessary to provide generalized information and then use it to combine virtual and physical environments. The purpose of such integration is to create a network environment in which intelligent objects interact with each other. Currently, cyber-physical systems ensure the integration of computing facilities into physical processes, and in the future, such systems will provide for the introduction of artificial intelligence elements into control processes. This is necessary because man is no longer able to provide effective management within the existing automated systems of extremely complex production, technological, and social processes. Emphasis is placed on the risks of cyber-physical systems and the importance of dealing with them is shown. Their classification taking into account the influence of the application of the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution with the use of cyber-physical systems is given. This classification covers the components that reflect each component of the innovation concept – the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The main causes of errors in the functioning of “man-machine” systems to human bias have been studied. Cyber-physical systems have been found to include interdependent analog, digital, physical, and human components designed to function with integrated physical devices and logic elements. The definition of the term “cognitive bias” is given. It is stated that cyber-physical systems have nine aspects, which are called “problem clusters”. The advantages and disadvantages of using the latest technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will depend on the need to assess the balance of “benefit-security” for the evolutionary process in general and the individual in particular.
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